Parliamentary Speeches

Committee of Supply Debate 2021 on “Safeguarding Singapore and Serving Our People Through Home Team Transformation” – Speech by Mr K Shanmugam, Minister for Home Affairs and Minister for Law

Published: 01 March 2021


1.    I thank the Honourable Members for their comments.


2.    We continue to be one of the safest places in the world.


3.    People are confident that Home Team will carry out its mission fairly and effectively.


4.    My colleagues from my Ministry and I will try and deal with the points raised by the MPs.


5.    Let me turn to the points that I will deal with.


6.    I will first speak about our approach to religious harmony, before setting out our transformation approach.


7.    Mr Singh, in his speech – quite an important speech – raised four points. One, possible religious bias of top civil servants, now and in the future. Two, our LGBTQ community and three, a possible Government statement on strict secularism. And four, updating the 1989 White Paper on Maintenance of Religious Harmony.


8.    Let me start with the point about religious bias of top civil servants.


Religious Bias of Top Civil Servants

9.    He raises the possibility of bias – now, as well as in the future – and he asks, and I quote: “Is there a danger that laws and policies could be tilted towards particular religious beliefs by top civil servants, if not now, maybe sometime in the future?”


10.    Mr Singh will accept, when his words are transmitted to the public, many will interpret him, in essence, saying that top civil servants could be biased, and they could act in favour of religious communities, because of their own religious beliefs, both now and in the future.


11.    I would say, leaving the public with that impression about our current top civil servants will be seriously wrong.


12.    They are persons who have dedicated their entire lives to public service, loyally and faithfully.


13.    If there is evidence of such a lack of integrity amongst current senior civil servants, then I agree, it should be raised and we must deal with it.


14.    If the statement was meant only to cover a future possibility, without any hint or suggestion of a lack of integrity amongst current top civil servants, then that should have been made crystal clear.


15.    Since Mr Singh has raised an issue relating to one of the key foundations of Singapore, and one of the key foundations of our success, that is – the integrity of our senior civil servants. Let me state the position categorically and quite starkly.


16.    The basic principle we follow and apply is that which Mr Lee Kuan Yew had set out in August 1965, and I quote: “We are going to have a multi-racial nation in Singapore. We will set the example. This is not a Malay nation; this is not a Chinese nation; this is not an Indian nation. Everyone will have his place: equal; language, culture, religion.”


17.    Freedom of Religion is guaranteed. But in the public sphere, in public policy making, we don’t make decisions which favour any one or other religious group.


18.    Neutrality and fairness are essential. Otherwise, in this small place, we will lose the trust of the people quickly.


19.    That goes for Cabinet Ministers, senior civil servants, and the Public Service as a whole.

20.    And when these principles are not observed, they must be dealt with.


The Situation Today

21.    The situation today, for the past 62 years, these principles – secularity, neutrality between religions – have been one of the Golden Threads in our public policy making.


22.    That is one of the key reasons Singapore is where it is now.


23.    My Ministry, in particular, has a direct role in dealing with issues relating to race and religion. We formulate and implement policies which deal with these issues.


24.    I have, over the years, worked with many senior civil servants, Permanent Secretaries, and Directors of the Internal Security Department (ISD).


25.    The current Head of Civil Service was my Permanent Secretary in Home Affairs. Outstanding officer. Unimpeachable integrity.


26.    He has given more than 35 years, his entire adult working life, in the service of this country, for the betterment of Singaporeans.


27.    It would be most unfair if he and his colleagues are tainted with the suspicion of religious bias without proof.


28.    I emphasise, I am referring to the impressions that Mr Singh’s words will leave with many, and not what he may have actually meant. How the words could be understood, does matter.


29.    My current Permanent Secretary was Director ISD, Permanent Secretary of Law, then Permanent Secretary of Transport. 28 years in Public Service. Again, an outstanding officer who is driven by only one aim, which is to make the lives of Singaporeans better. Since last year, he has been working his guts out, leading the Homefront Crisis Executive Group (HCEG), coordinating and managing our pandemic response so that Singaporeans can be safe.


30.    We look for officers of this character and caliber, and they should not in any way be tainted with suggestions of religious bias in their approach.


31.    I have highlighted officers from my Ministry in particular, because we are at the forefront of dealing with religious issues. We meet different religious leaders, we work hard to preserve religious harmony amongst the different faiths.


32.    Our integrity, honesty, reliability and neutrality are key to us and those are the currency we deal in. Whether the people we work with accept us depends on these factors.


33.    And this is important in another central way: We promote officers on merit. You don’t want other questions to be asked – what is his religion, what is his race? Once we ask those questions for promotion, I think we will be in trouble.


34.    I don't forget what I said in 2003 about leavening the effects of meritocracy by taking into account the position of minorities. What I say now can stand together with, and be qualified by, what I said in 2003. Though the latter point, I emphasise, is a purely personal view.


35.    Take another officer, beyond the two I’ve mentioned – Esa Masood. He graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was formerly Deputy Director in the Ministry of Education and Director at the Early Childhood Development Agency. Now, he is Chief Executive of MUIS. One day he will go back to the Civil Service. He should be assessed on the basis of the quality of his work and not on the basis of the quality or nature of his religious beliefs.


36.    And that goes across the Public Service. For me, when a Police officer attends to a call at a house, you don’t want people to think, “this is a Muslim officer”, or “Christian officer”, or “a Hindu officer”. You want people to think, “this a Singapore Police Force officer”.


37.    I personally keep close track of trust levels in our Police Force. They are now extremely high. And we don’t want to get to the levels in some First World countries where people march in the streets to abolish the police force because of racial issues.


38.    It is not accidental that we have one of the highest levels of racial harmony in the world.


39.    That is the present. The quality of our Civil Service, their integrity, is a key reason why Singapore has succeeded.


40.    But I also want to acknowledge, many of us have our own religious beliefs. Not everyone is, or can be expected to be, a saint. Sometimes, there can be a tendency to see things through a religious lens or a personal perspective, and that can apply to all – Ministers, civil servants, ground officers. We have to guard against that, we have to avoid it, leave personal viewpoints, and look at it when you’re making public policy through a secular perspective, on what is the interest. You will be informed by your religious beliefs, but you have to look at the broad majority, and see what is in their interest.


41.    We have to jealously guard against any such tendency to look through a particular lens, whether it’s Ministers or anyone else, and we have to set the tone from the very top, insist on the secular approach and be strict about that.


42.    Mr Singh is reflecting on, I think, what some people might feel, and I will say to him today that it is not a systemic issue, and we have to guard against it. And what is the safeguard? It starts with politics, how we conduct it. And religion – how important do we make it in politics? In the midst, do we dog whistle? Let’s be honest and ask, how often have speeches done that in this House? It is the responsibility on both sides of the House.


43.    You want an example of where it can lead to? Look at the United States, how votes are sought along religious lines. If we go down that road, we will be in trouble.


44.    Mr Singh also asks, “what of the future?”


45.    I will make two points. One, we have, over the years, developed institutions, a system – the Public Service Commission (PSC), Public Service Division (PSD), rules that seek to promote the best officers and weed out those whose integrity is not clear.


46.    The assessments are multi-faceted and we have safeguarded the independence of the PSC, because the degradation of the Civil Service will seriously damage Singapore.


47.    Second, having said that, my second point is, to be blunt, whether the senior Civil Service remains world class and has integrity, depends ultimately on who the Ministers are too. The timbre of our Ministers will ultimately decide everything else.

48.    If the Ministers are biased, they lack of integrity, that will spread. Maybe slowly, but surely. The institutions that we have set up can delay the spread. It may depend on how long the top remains bad, but it won’t be a happy situation.


49.    We have avoided these outcomes so far and you only have to look at some countries outside of Singapore, many countries including First World countries, to see what can go wrong and how quickly.



50.    Second, Mr Singh spoke about our LGBTQ community.


51.    I have made the Government’s position clear. The amendments to the Maintenance of Religious Harmony Act, MRHA, make it an offence to urge violence on the grounds of religion or religious belief, against any person or group.


52.    Action can be taken under the MRHA, if a religious group, using religion, attacks a non-religious group, such as LGBT groups or individuals. Equally, if a religious group or its member is attacked by non-religious persons or groups, say LGBT, action can also be taken.


53.    The law is even-handed in this context.


54.    This was emphasised by me during the MRHA Second Reading, and also during my speech at last year’s Committee of Supply.


55.    Regardless of which community, what your social, religious or sexual beliefs are, everyone will be protected here, and I have said so categorically.


56.    LGBTQ persons, non-LGBTQ persons, we are all equal. We are not any lesser by reason of our sexual preferences.


57.    And if anyone stirs hate speech, either for or against any sexual or religious community – we will take action. Doesn’t mean action will be taken on every occasion. Police will use their discretion, assess the context.


58.    We have set out our position. If Mr Singh thinks that there should be any change or variation to this position, I will be happy to hear from him. In particular, if he wishes to clarify what exactly is his position on our LGBTQ policies, I will be happy to hear from him.


Government's Position on Secularism

59.    Third point that Mr Singh made, was on secularism and he asked for a statement.


60.    Our secular stand has been made clear when the Government looks at policies. We do so in a secular way. We guarantee freedom of all religions. We don’t favour any particular religion.


61.    Last year, in November, at the Religious Rehabilitation Group (RRG) Seminar, I set out how our secular approach works. I also explained how our approach, for example, differs from the French approach. They are also secular.


62.    I have spoken about our approach at least nine times over the last five years[i]. And I don’t think Mr Singh wants a 10th speech. I can give Mr Singh the references. The Government’s position is quite clear. Most people know what it is.


Updating the MRHA White Paper

63.    The fourth point he made is updating the MRHA White Paper.


64.    I can assure Mr Singh – religious issues, interaction of religious communities, is a top of mind issue for us. Let me set out some things that have been done in the last few years.


65.    In April 2019, I delivered a very substantive Ministerial Statement titled “Restricting Hate Speech to Maintain Racial and Religious Harmony in Singapore”. I explained the Government’s position and approach in dealing with hate and offensive speech.


66.    Then, we went further than a White Paper. In June 2019, in the same year, with the support of the Government, our religious leaders worked together on a Commitment to Safeguard Religious Harmony. They affirmed the shared values and the way of life of Singaporeans. This approach has underpinned the religious harmony we have.


67.    To date, nearly 700 religious organisations, 680 to be exact, and 73 community groups have affirmed this Commitment. I would invite a careful study of this very important document. It is a commitment by the major religious groups and organisations on the principles of religious harmony that should govern us. It goes beyond past declarations on religious harmony. It details the many positive ways in which Singaporeans have been interacting across religions. And it encourages Singaporeans of all faiths to practice tolerance and acceptance. For example, allowing each other space to profess our faiths and to do so in a respectful manner; eating together with others even if we have different religious dietary requirements and practices; and attending the life events of others, such as weddings and funerals, even if those are held in the place of worship of that faith. That more than 680 religious organisations have committed to this specific call to attention, is to be celebrated. It won’t happen in many countries.


68.    We followed that up in October 2019. We amended the MRHA in several major aspects to strengthen our ability to safeguard against and respond more effectively to threats to our religious harmony. So, it can be seen, we have reviewed the 1989 White Paper. We have taken concrete steps after the Review. We have considered the evolving context, brought religious groups and leaders together, affirmed a new document of principles and have amended the MRHA.


69.    The amendments also introduced a higher standard of behaviour for religious leaders, for example, because of the influence they can wield. For example, if you are a non-religious leader and you said something in a private context, that may not be an offence. But if the same thing were to be said by a religious leader, the defence is much narrower. He has got to show that it was only domestic communications, between the leader and relatives or members of his or her household.


70.    Given the many steps that have been taken, there is no immediate need for another White Paper. But it is an issue which we will keep reviewing. I thank Mr Singh for raising these issues. They are important. They allow us to examine again some key and important points.



71.    Let me move on to some of the other efforts. Mr Murali Pillai asked how the Home Team will balance increasing demands on it, given the manpower issues. I have said before – there is a limit to increasing our resources and manpower. It is in short supply all across Singapore.To deal with this, we have been focusing on transformation, increased use of technology.


72.    Chairman, with your permission, may I display a set of slides on the LCD screen as I make my points.



73.    To start with, we set up the Home Team Science and Technology Agency, or HTX, in December 2019 to develop customised technology solutions for our needs, to better use tech, reduce some types of work, multiply our capabilities. HTX has built up talent and capabilities – 14 Centres of Expertise, and in a number of areas such as biometrics, sense-making and robotics. It is also developing expertise in managing data centres and cloud-based technologies. A Security Operations Centre, monitoring 24/7. HTX will continue to upgrade its capabilities.


74.    Let me now move on to how we will use tech to transform Home Team Operations.



(A) Enhancing Sensor Network and empowering officers

(1) Cameras


75.    Sensor networks, cameras. We are enhancing our frontline response through greater use of cameras. The Police have installed almost 90,000 cameras in major public locations – HDB estates, neighbourhood centres and carparks. This has been a game-changer to deter, investigate, and solve crimes. As of December 2020, Police cameras have assisted in solving nearly 5,000 cases. 4,900 to be precise.


76.    Surveys have shown that people feel safer with the prominent placement of Police cameras in their neighbourhoods. In the next several years, I promise that many more cameras will be installed across the island, subject to the Budgetary situation.


(2) Redesigned NPCs/Self Help Kiosks

77.    Next, the Police have redesigned our Neighbourhood Police Centres and Police Posts to include automated self-help kiosks. People can access Police services, around the clock.


(3) Next-Gen Fast Response Cars

78.    Three, Police will roll out 300 next-generation Fast Response Cars (FRCs) by 2023, within the next two years. They will have cameras which will provide a 360-degree view of its surroundings to the Police Command Centre. It will allow commanders at the Command Centre to assess the situation and deploy back-ups. The cars will also have video analytics technology, to read number plates, automatically flag vehicles of interest. So, you will be surrounded be sensors, which make people feel safer and more confident.


(4) Police Beacons

79.    Fourth, Police have deployed two Police Beacon prototypes at Sengkang and Punggol for a year. The Police Beacons will allow members of the public to contact the Police directly during emergencies. They will come equipped with a range of tools to create deterrence and project presence. They will also have CCTV cameras, so the situation can be assessed immediately, quickly. They are particularly useful in more secluded locations.


(B) Enhancing Investigation Capabilities

80.    Beyond sensors, in terms of investigations, Police and CNB are working to sharpen their investigation capabilities with technology.


(1) Automated Case Management

81.    One, their investigation and case management systems are being digitised, automated and streamlined, so that officers can access case information and update cases on the move, instead of having to go back to the office to do it, and save time on handling paperwork and administrative tasks. Because, the tool will be an integrated search tool, searching multiple databases at one go.


(2) Dealing with Scams

82.    Two, Mr Murali Pillai asked how the Police are adapting to tackling some of the more challenging cases of scams and commercial crimes. Police are seeking to use technology again. For example, automating screening of financial transactions when investigating scams. They also have tools to quickly extract and analyse digital evidence from mobile devices, thumb drives. But, I think Members will understand. In the end, there is a limit to how much can be done when the scammers are overseas.


(C) Fire and Emergency Response [SCDF]

(1) Smart Fire Stations

83.    Three, I will now deal with tech and our emergency responses.


84.    SCDF, for example, is building the next generation of Smart Fire Stations starting with the new Punggol Fire Station. They will make greater use of sensors and automation to help with manpower management, operational response and decision-making. Manual processes like tracking the readiness of emergency supplies, vehicles, rostering of duty personnel, will all be automated.


(2) AI providing Critical Information

85.    During an emergency, an Artificial Intelligence system will send critical information – floor plans of building, live video feed of the site to our officers, where available – even before they arrive at the site. That will help officers assess the situation, develop a plan faster, and enhance their response.


(3) Smart Wearables

86.    Our SCDF officers will also be having smart wearables that will be integrated with the Smart Fire Station’s systems. It will allow commanders to monitor officers’ physical condition during operations and training to reduce risk of injury.


(4) Paramedics – Access to Patient Data

87.    Four, our paramedics will be able to access patient data from MOH’s databases when responding to a 995 call. It will allow for more effective medical intervention.



(1) New Clearance Concept

88.    Moving on to ICA, our aim is to have travellers move through automated lanes when they enter and leave Singapore. We are aiming for contactless. Some of the necessary technology has already been put in place.


a. Multi-Modal Biometric System

89.    First, today, eligible travellers can already use what we call the Multi-Modal Biometric System (MMBS) to clear immigration by scanning their face and iris. It is more secure than fingerprint clearance, and also contactless. The traditional paper-based card system has been replaced by the SG Arrival Card e-service and mobile app. That facilitates smoother immigration clearance and enhances the advance screening of passenger information.


b. Iris / Facial Images

90.    As regards to the iris and facial images, we intend to upgrade this. We will verify travellers’ identities through iris and facial images at the automated lanes, instead of passports and thumbprints. ICA has conducted trials with promising results.


91.    Ms Sylvia Lim asked how ICA is managing new demands arising from COVID-19 and how foreigners are held following their release from prison if they cannot be repatriated immediately, and whether additional manpower was required.


92.    ICA has been putting in place plans and systems to cope with the new demands. The digitalisation efforts began some years ago. It enabled them to cope with new demands brought about by COVID-19.


93.    The digital services can adapt to changes to our border control rules. They were designed to enable ICA to administer relevant measures for different groups of travellers, and also enables integration.


94.    For example, ICA integrated electronic Health Declaration Card into the SG Arrival Card platform.


(2) Enhanced E-Services

95.    Second, ICA has enhanced its e-Services, which allow it to automatically process many of the applications and significantly reduce volume of applications which have to be dealt with by ICA officers manually.


96.    With regard to the question on repatriation of foreigners, ICA seeks to repatriate them as soon as possible, but of course, subject to the availability of flights and COVID-19 border control measures, both here and elsewhere. Where necessary, ICA houses them temporarily in existing Prisons or other ICA facilities.


97.    Some additional manpower was needed to resource new functions, but ICA has largely coped by redeploying officers to meet the new demands, like the Safe Travel Office and enforcing the Stay-Home Notice regime. When the surge of travellers come back, there is obviously going to be substantial demand on ICA, and we will have to deal it, this is something we are focused on.


98.    Ms Sylvia Lim has asked about the morale of ICA officers.


99.    ICA has implemented additional measures to support the ground officers. Senior commanders engage officers regularly to gather feedback and try to address their concerns. Of course, not all the concerns can be addressed, but the serious engagement and attempt to solve the issues properly, are important.


100.    Morale is generally OK.



101.    Let me now move to Prisons. Prisons has also made good progress with technology, in particular, what they call the “Prison Without Guards” strategy.


102.    The vision is to have a smart prison that leverages technology to automate routine work, so that Prison officers can be more focused on inmates’ rehabilitation.


(1) Smart Cameras / Video Analytics

103.    For that, one, they go for smart cameras and video analytics, which will assist officers in monitoring inmates' activities and movements, detect irregular behaviour such as fights and medical emergencies.


(2) Tech to aid Rehab

104.    Two, technology is also helping substantially with the rehabilitation of inmates.


a. Enhanced Learning

105.    Inmates are given mobile tablets with e-books and guiding resources to supplement their regular lessons and programmes. It allows the inmates to learn at their own pace and take greater ownership of their rehabilitation.


106.    We are developing a mobile app for supervisees in the community, to reinforce their learning and rehabilitation.


107.    The supervisees can use the app to access customised e-resources, keep track of their progress, and look for job opportunities and community support.


b. More Inmates to Serve out Sentences in Community through Greater Use of Tech

108.    We are also expanding community corrections. We want to allow more inmates to serve a larger part of their sentences in the community, as long as it is safe to do so, so they are out for a longer period.


109.    That can be done, we think, through greater use of technology to monitor the inmates in the community, and help compliance with supervision conditions.


110.    Prisons is developing a tracking device that looks like a digital watch. It is more discreet than the ankle tag that many Members might be aware of, reduces stigma, boosts supervisees’ self-confidence, and helps with reintegration back into society.


111.    Prisons has also enhanced its digital case management system, making it easier for community partners to access case files and share updates with Prisons staff.



112.    Let me now talk a little bit about how we have been using robotics and unmanned aerial systems, or drones, in the Home Team.


113.    Mr De Souza asked how the Police seek to overcome operational constraints posed by COVID-19.


114.    The answer is greater use of technology. Drones and robots were deployed for security operations at COVID-19 isolation facilities, which reduced the risk of exposure for our frontline officers.


115.    SCDF has been using robots to fight fire. At an industrial fire in Tuas in March last year, these robots tackled the most dangerous parts of the fire, with immense heat and poor visibility.


116.    The Home Team will continue to build on these capabilities.


117.    Police have likewise deployed drones and robots at major public events for crowd management and public safety. They will also support officers in their daily patrols.


118.    In future, you may see three SCDF officers and a robot responding to a fire on board the ‘Red Rhino’, instead of the current four-man section. These robots are capable of pushing deeper into the seat of fire, and can help to carry equipment and casualties.


119.    We are also enhancing our ability to deal with the threat of drones.


120.    Police and HTX are developing the XENTINEL which is a mobile vehicle platform that can be quickly deployed to detect, track and safely take down rogue drones from a long distance.


121.    Police are also exploring how to equip the Next-generation FRCs with counter-drone capabilities.



122.    Let me now move from the hardware to focus on how we are trying to transform service delivery.


123.    ICA, for example, is bringing more of its services online.


124.    Today, residents can register or re-register for their Identification Card (IC) online. They can also update their address online, instead of visiting the ICA Building or a Police Post.


125.    ICA will be issuing more types of documents in digital form, such as birth and death certificates, and Long-term passes.


126.    ICA will also introduce push notifications for all Singapore residents with registered SingPass accounts, to remind them to follow up on transactions with ICA. For example, you may receive a reminder to re-register your IC on your 30th or 55th birthday.


127.    Dr Tan Wu Meng and Mr Faisal Manap spoke about not excluding those who lack IT access, or are less IT-savvy, from Home Team services.


128.    I entirely agree. We try to design our e-services to be simple, seamless and convenient, for everyone.


129.    We will also try to assist those who need help. If they need physical channels, we will provide helpdesks, self-help kiosks, and service centres.


130.    Specifically, Dr Tan raised about Security Officer Licence. Those who require assistance can call the Police Licensing and Regulatory Department to make an appointment, or visit their service counter during office hours.


131.    For Citizenship and Permanent Resident applications, those without Internet access can visit the Citizen Connect Centres (CCCs) for free access to Internet-enabled computing devices. Those who require more assistance can approach ICA officers at the ICA Building.


132.    ICA is also building a new Integrated Services Centre next to the existing ICA building, to provide counter services.


133.    Members of the public will be served at a single counter for all services.


134.    We will also try and make it a more seamless customer experience.


135.    Construction works for the Integrated Services Centre has commenced, and is targeted for completion in 2023.



136.    Mr Pillai asked about our plans to upgrade the skills of our officers.


137.    I will give some examples.


138.    The Home Team Academy (HTA) has been using the Home Team Simulation System to train our officers in managing large-scale security incidents and joint operations. It requires fewer resources to carry out than a physical training exercise. HTA will enhance the system with new technologies like Artificial Intelligence and expand the usage to more officers.


139.    SCDF’s re-development of the Civil Defence Academy, will include a Digital Learning Lab, and it will provide Virtual Reality training for SCDF officers, such as extricating people from a car wreckage.


140.    The approach is always to try to upgrade skills and make the training more realistic.



141.    What about our manpower needs?


142.    HTX will need to hire a few hundred scientists and engineers over the next few years, to build a critical mass of experts in areas like digital and crime scene forensics, robotics, and automation.


143.    There are other new developments that continue to drive up demand for the Home Team’s manpower.


144.    For example, while ICA leverages technology, it still needs manpower to run operations at future checkpoints such as Tuas Mega Port and the RTS Link.


145.    SCDF, too, will need more ambulances and more officers to attend to the growing number of medical emergencies, due to our ageing population.


146.    Police will need to expand the deployment of In-Situ Reaction Teams (IRTs) to patrol high footfall locations in Singapore, to quickly respond to armed terrorist attacks.


147.    We also need to increase the number of Police investigators. I have mentioned that previously. The number of investigation files handled by Land Divisions increased 36% between 2015 and 2019.


148.    Cases have also become more complex. Crimes are increasingly tech-enabled. Perpetrators, often anonymous, may also be based overseas. It requires more effort to track and identify them.


149.    Mr Pillai asked how we are supporting the well-being of our Investigation Officers. Apart from increasing the number of investigators to manage the workload, Police are currently undertaking an internal review of their systems, processes and structures, to see how we can better support our investigators.



150.    Mr Chairman, Mr De Souza has asked if COVID-19 has presented Police the time and opportunity to evaluate how technology can be better utilised.


151.    Members will see, from what I have said. Police, the Home Team as a whole, have been exploring and investing in technology for some time, even before COVID-19. And that has stood us in good stead during COVID-19.


152.    We will continue on that path.


153.    Thank you.

[i] References:

1.    Interview on the Sidelines of Visit to Masjid Yusof Ishak, 28 Jan 2021

2.    RRG Seminar, 24 Nov 2020

3.    Ministerial Statement on Restricting Hate Speech to Maintain Racial and Religious Harmony, 1 Apr 2019

4.    RRG Seminar, 19 Mar 2019

5.    Speech at Inter-Agency Aftercare Group Youth Forum, 11 Aug 2018

6.    International Conference on Role of Muslim NGOs in Promoting Culture of Peace, 12 Oct 2017

7.    Parl Debate on Fortifying Singapore’s Resolve to Stay United Against the Threat of Terrorism, 2 Oct 2017

8.    Statement on Offensive Speech or Expression Involving Race or Religion, 6 May 2017

9.    The 2nd SRP Distinguished Lecture and Symposium 2016